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An autophoropter is a digital version of a phoropter, the instrument we use to check your prescription by showing you different lenses. The benefits of using an autophoropter is that the switches between the two lenses we show you is much faster, making it easier for you to appreciate the difference between the two options. We can also show you much faster and more accurately the difference between your old prescription and your new prescription so you can make a decision whether you feel the change is worth updating your glasses. The degree of change is also smaller on an autophoropter allowing us to provide a more precise prescription. 



A retinal image is a picture taken of the back of the eye. The picture is taken using light. It allows us a broader and more detailed view of the retina tissue, blood vessels, optic nerve and macula. Since each eye is unique to the individual, pictures allow us over time to detect small changes to the tissue and detect diseases earlier in addition to being able to monitor current conditions more effectively. Pictures can allow us to see clots in your retina vasculature, see hypertension as it is affecting your blood vessels, monitor for diabetic changes to the retina, monitor moles for change closer, detect the starting changes to macular degeneration, and so much more. 



  • Children: we highly recommend retinal imaging in children starting at the age of 6 and then every few years. The incidence of disease is much lower in children, however, diseases that occur in childhood lead to the most vision loss and are more likely to be related to more severe systemic conditions. In addition to that retinal imaging gives us a snap shot of the eye today, should an injury occur we are able to monitor for change a lot closer.

  • Adults and Seniors: we highly recommend retinal imaging for all adults and seniors at your regular eye exam. The incidence of ocular disease increases as we get older, as does our risk of systemic diseases (such as high blood pressure, diabetes, etc). Retinal imaging with a dilation is becoming the standard of care to detect and monitor for diseases and allows us a more in depth look at the tissue. 

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An OCT image is a 3D scan of the tissue at the back of the eye. This scan is taken using light. It allows for a deeper look into the tissue, allow us to see below the surface. OCT imaging is typically done on the macula and on the nerve. A macular scan allows us to monitor for the onset of macular degeneration, and diabetic changes, and the impact of certain medications on the macula. An optic nerve scan allows us to monitor for the onset of glaucoma, optic nerve head drusen, and papillitis. We can also use OCT scans to monitor suspicious moles in the retina, monitor the angle of the eye (a risk factor for more severe glaucoma), and take measurements of the thickness of the cornea. Overall OCT imaging allows us to detect diseases much earlier, this results in earlier intervention, better care, and less vision loss. 



  • Adults 40+: we highly recommend OCT imaging for adults over the age of 40. As we get older our risk of macular degeneration and glaucoma increases. Earlier detection of these diseases results in earlier intervention and improves our visual outcome. 

  • Younger Individuals with high risk of developing glaucoma or macula degeneration due to a strong family history.

  • Individuals with diabetes: we highly recommend OCT imaging for diabetic patients at least once a year. This allows for a more in depth look at the macula to detect early diabetic changes and bleeding.  These small changes can be otherwise difficult to assess. Detecting changes early will result in improved visual outcome and less vision loss.

  • Individuals with narrow angles: narrow angles can lead to angle closure glaucoma, a more severe form of glaucoma that results in extensive and quick vision loss. Monitoring the angle with an OCT image allows earlier detection for possible closure

  • Individuals on certain oral medications that can result in deposits and changes to the macular tissue. 

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Axial Length is a measurement of the length of the eye front to back. The length of the eye will change in correlation to a patient’s myopic prescription. Usually the length of the eye will increase prior to the prescription worsening. Higher prescriptions, and therefore longer axial lengths, are related to a higher incidence of diseases. 



  • Children who are currently doing myopia control. Axial length can give us more information on the effectivity of the current treatment. 

  • Children who are at high risk of become myopic due to family history can be monitored with Axial Length measurements. Monitoring for axial length can give us an earlier indication of when a child may become myopia so we can initiate treatment earlier. Earlier intervention can result in reduced myopic progression and better overall visual outcome. 

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